Carbon dating instruments
After a creature's death the isotope would slowly decay away over millennia at a fixed rate.Thus the less of it that remained in an object, in proportion to normal carbon, the older the object was.
He was looking for the carbon that human industry had been emitting by burning fossil fuels, in which all the carbon-14 had long since decayed away.
covers all aspects of the interaction of energetic beams with atoms, molecules and aggregate forms of matter.
This includes ion beam analysis and ion beam modification of materials as well as basic data of importance for these studies....
Topics of general interest include: atomic collisions in solids, particle channelling, all aspects of collision cascades, the modification of materials by energetic beams, ion implantation, irradiation - induced changes in materials, the physics and chemistry of beam interactions and the analysis of materials by all forms of energetic radiation.
Modification by ion, laser and electron beams for the study of electronic materials, metals, ceramics, insulators, polymers and other important and new materials systems are included.
Any contamination of a sample by outside carbon (even from the researcher's fingerprints) had to be fanatically excluded, of course, but that was only the beginning.